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需求捕获指南(六)—需求捕获技术之问卷表

时间:2009-11-14 21:37 点击:626次 字体:[ ]




  7. Requirements Elicitation Techniques
  7.需求捕获技术
  
a) Questionnaires
  b. 问卷表
  Questionnaire is another widely used tool for requirements elicitation, as it appears scientific due to statistical analysis. Questionnaires shall be used when:
  问卷表是需求捕获时广泛使用的另一种工具,它采用了统计分析的方法,显得更科学。问卷表一般在下列情况中使用
  · Large base of individuals
  · 需访谈的个体太多
  · Need answers to well-defined specific issues
  · 需要回答容易确定的细节问题
  · When you want a specific outcome
  · 当你希望有个详细的结果时
  While preparing questionnaires, keep in mind:
  准备问卷表时,注意以下情况
  · Keep the questionnaire as small as possible. Instead of using one big questionnaire, use multiple small ones. In case of big questionnaires usually user tends to get tired after answering first 15-20 questions and fails to do justice with response for rest of the part. As a thumb rule a questionnaire shall not contain more than 10-15 Qs.
  · 使问卷表尽可能的简短。用多个短小的问卷表替代一个长的问卷表。如果在回答了前15-20个问题后,长的问卷表会使用户感觉厌烦,他们就不会对其余的问题做出正确的判断。通常,一个问卷表包含的问题不超过10-15.
  · Estimate the time required for answering the questions and state that in the beginning to enable the respondent plan accordingly.
  · 估计回答问题需要的时间,并在问卷表开头标明这个时间,已便让回答者做出相应的安排
  · Make sure that the questions are context free and un-ambiguous
  · 确保问题是前后一致的,没有让人含混的理解
  · For insuring un-ambiguity run the questionnaire by someone closer to respondents’ community and confirm that their understanding of the questions is as required
  · 为了保证不会理解含混,让与回答者关系密切的人员来进行问卷调查,并保证他们对问题的理解是正确的。
  · Before putting questions, identify what you need to get answered
  · 在制定问题前,先确定你需要得到怎样的答案
  · List down all the possible questions separately
  · 分别列出所有可能的答案
  · Once all the requirements and questions are ready, put all requirements on X-axis and questions on Y-axis. Now for each question, identify what all requirements are being fulfilled by each question. In the end of this exercise discard all the questions not answering any of the requirements.
  · 一旦所有的需求和问题都准备好了,把需求点当作X轴,问题当作Y轴。确保所有的需求能被问题覆盖。最后,剔除掉与需求无关的问题。
  b) Group Meetings
  c. 小组会议
  Group meetings shall be used when:
  小组会议一般在下列情况中使用:
  · Knowledge is equally distributed among a small group of individuals.
  · 信息平均的分布一小部分个人中
  · Inability to meet all the concerned stakeholders individually
  · 无法个别的会见所有的风险承担人
  · A series of interviews has been done and team needs to get all the respondents on same platform
  · 一系列的访谈已经结束,团队需要在同一平台下得到所有的回答者
  During group meetings, everyone gets to share the ideas loud and team answers are generally better than individual answers. Also group meetings help in reducing the number of conflicting requirements as well as keep a tab on wish list going haywire.
  在小组会议中,每个人都可讲出自己的想法。团队的答案一般比个人的答案好。小组会议可以减少一部分需求冲突,绕开纷繁的情况得到需求列表
  When the group discussions are not managed well, following problems can happen:
  如果小组会议管理不好,容易出现下列情况
  · Domination by a few participants
  · 少数与会者控制了讨论
  · Lack of participation by some
  · 一部分与会者缺缺乏参与讨论的积极性

  To tackle these issues make sure to play the facilitator role. Also try to stimulate response from non-participating members by specifically directing questions starting from closed and slowly moving towards open questions.
  为避免这种情况,需求分析人员要推动讨论的进行。要鼓励缺乏积极性的与会者参与讨论,先直接向他们提一些封闭性问题,然后逐渐转为开放性问题。
  Most of the thumb rules like use of open questions, restatement for confirmation of understanding, clear agenda definition, use of designated scribes, etc. are also applicable here.
  首要的技巧象提一些开放性问题,复述回答来确认理解,建立清楚的议程,指定记录员记录会议等都可使用。
  Some other things to be kept in mind are:
  其他一些注意事项:
  · Identify the meeting place in advance and provide directions to reach there along with the meeting request. This is particularly important for big organizations where everyone may not be familiar with entire office building.
  · 提前确定会议地点,在发出与会邀请时提供路线图。这在一些大公司尤为重要,并不是每个人都熟悉整个办公大楼。
  · Pre-decide the seating plan and distribute analysts uniformly so that all the respondents could be heard of well.
  · 提前制定座位安排,平均分布需求分析人员,这样确保所有的回答都能被听到。
  · If possible, convey some ground rules to be followed during the discussion e.g. respect other’s opinion, switching off the cell phones, etc.
  · 如果可能,在会议开始时宣布一些希望大家遵守的基本准则,如尊重别人的观点,关闭手机等
  · Play the role of anchor to keep the scope of discussion in control
  · 牢牢控制讨论的话题
  · If possible, use recorders to be better able to pay more attention to the discussion
  · 如果可能,使用录音机,这样能更专注于讨论
  · Be very well prepared as for a group meeting total stakeholder effort is ‘N’ times an individual interview where ‘N’ is number of participants
  · 好好的准备小组会议,所做准备要“N”倍于个人访谈的准备,这里的“N”是指参与讨论的风险承担人人数。
  · Use working prototypes, etc if the meeting is aimed towards finalization rather than exploration
  · 如果这个会议是最终确定需求,而不是探询需求,可采用工作原型演示的方法
  · In the end of the discussion, thank everyone for the time and convey plan for consolidation and circulation of the minutes of the meeting
  · 在小组讨论结束时,感谢大家抽出时间参与讨论,告诉大家整理确认需求的计划并传阅会议纪要。
  d. References
  Requirements Elicitation Checklist (QSD/REF/402)
  Issues in Requirements Elicitation (QSD/REF/404)
  Process Tailoring Guidelines
  (全文完)
  系列文章:
  需求捕获指南(一)—概念和目的
  需求捕获指南(二)—需求捕获的问题及过程
  需求捕获指南(三)—需求捕获的阶段组成(A)
  需求捕获指南(三)—需求捕获的阶段组成(B)
  需求捕获指南(三)—需求捕获的阶段组成(C)
  需求捕获指南(三)—需求捕获的阶段组成(D)
  需求捕获指南(四)—需求捕获技术
  需求捕获指南(五)—需求捕获之用户访谈
  需求捕获指南(六)—需求捕获之调查表


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