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需求捕获指南(五)—需求捕获技术之用户访谈

时间:2009-11-14 21:37 点击:482次 字体:[ ]




  7. Requirements Elicitation Techniques
  7.需求捕获技术
  Conducting the Interview
  引导访谈

  Closed questions should be avoided, as the result of this approach is usually that the interviewee gives a brief answer to the question and then wait for the next one, almost as if a detective is interrogating him.
  在访谈中避免提封闭性的问题,因为被访谈者通常会简短的回答完这样的问题,然后等待下一个问题。这样就象是侦探在审问犯人。
  Closed questions: (who, where, when, which)
  · Set limits on the type, level and amount of information interviewee provides
  · Often provide a choice of alternatives
  · Can require a bipolar or multiple choice response
  · Used for clarifying or probing questions or as feedback
  · Less time consuming for specific information
  · Makes note-taking easier
  · Sometimes can get too little information
  · May stop interviewee from volunteering information
  · Requires an excellent command of vocabulary and concepts
  封闭性的问题:(谁,哪里,什么时间,哪一个):
    限制了被访谈者提供信息的类型,层次和数量。
    通常提供了二选一的回答
    暗示了较极端或不确定性的回答
    一般用于澄清问题,探索性提问或仅是希望得到反馈信息
    花费较少的时间得到细节信息
    比较容易作笔记
    有时只能得到很少的信息
    可能导致被访谈者无法自由提供信息
    对相关术语和词汇的要求高
  Always start a topic with open questions helping the respondent to open up and slowly move towards the closed questions thus helping yourself in confirming your understanding. Too much of closed questions lead to collection of partial information while too much of open questions pose a risk of leaving gaps of understanding by analyst.
  在开始一个议题时,一般会用开放性的问题,便于被访谈者展开思路。然后,渐渐转为结论性问题,这样能帮助证证实你的理解。太多的关闭性问题会导致收集的信息不完整,太多的开放性问题可能导致需求分析者的理解失误
  Note taking can become a distraction if not restricted to brief notations for later elaboration. Your notepad is best kept out of the interviewee's line of vision. The purpose of an analyst's notes should be to help recall pertinent points and hypotheses formed during an interview. It is better to have a designated scribe in the team of interviewers. Using a voice recorder also is a good idea though it takes a little more time in the information consolidation after the interview, as the analyst needs to replay entire tape.
  为了会谈后的整理需要,一般会使用简明的符号来做笔记,否则做笔记会使你分心。最好将笔记本放在被访谈者视线外。需求分析者的笔记有助于会谈后回顾要点和会谈时形成的想法。最好是会谈时指定一个记录员。使用录音机也是个好主意。虽然会谈后整理信息会耗费些时间,因为需求分析人员需要听完整个记录
  Taping an interview is not always recommended. It can intimidate the interviewee; and, listening to the tape and extracting pertinent information is very time consuming. However, video- or audio-taping each have advantages and disadvantages.
  不特别推荐使用录音机,这会使被访谈者有被胁迫的感觉;而且倾听录音,记录其中要点也是耗时较多的工作。无论如何,音频视频记录有优点也有缺点。
  Active listening helps to maintain the information flow and facilitates adequate feedback from analyst to interviewee.
  The active listening technique has five key tools:
  · Asking open- ended questions
  · Using appropriate words and phrases
  · Giving acceptance cues
  · Restating the interviewee's responses
  · Using silence effectively
  认真倾听有助维持需求分析者和被访谈人之间的信息交流,维持相互之间适当的反馈。
  认真倾听有五个关键方法
  询问开放性的问题
  使用适当的表达
  暗示相信被访谈者
  重述被访谈者的回答
  有效的使用沉默
  Asking Open-Ended Questions
  询问开放性的问题

  Open-ended questions cannot be answered with a simple yes or no response and thus encourage the interviewee to provide more information.
  Open-ended questions begin with such words as what, how or tell me rather than such words as can, does, or when e.g. "Tell me what happens when a customer calls"
  开放性问题无法简单的用事或否来回答,应此被访谈者就会提供更多的信息。
开放性问题一般会使用这些词语做开头,如什么,怎麽样或是告诉我。而不会使用诸如能够,要作或是何时这样的词语。列举一个需要详尽解释的问题,“告诉我,当顾客打进电话时,什么情况发生?”
  Open questions: (what, why, how)
  · Are broad and place few constraints on the interviewee
  · Used for determining scope of understanding, response certainty, models used allow expert to express information knowledge engineer does not know about
  · Can obtain interviewee’s vocabulary, concepts, frames of reference
  · Can help with explanations and underlying theory
开放性问题: (什么, 为什么, 多么)
  · 涉及比较宽广,加在被访谈者上的约束很少
  · 用来确定理解范围。被访谈者会使用明确的回答或是模拟演示来传达需求分析人员不了解的内容
  · 可以得到被访谈者的行业词汇,概念和可参考的知识框架
  · 有助于增强理解,得到一些潜在的理论
  Using Appropriate Words and Phrases
  使用适当的语言表达

  Words or phrases that are emotionally charged, distracting, or difficult to understand must be avoided. E.g. emotional expressions such as problem area, cumbersome process, or poorly controlled imply a foregone conclusion.
  Avoid distracting statements containing excessive abbreviations or acronyms, name-dropping, or controversial words and phrases, colloquialisms, slang, and jargon.
  避免使用有感情倾向,让人分心或是难以理解的语言。类似于问题存在于,讨厌的处理过程或是无法控制这样的有感情倾向的语言容易暗示某种结论。
  避免使用让人分心语言。这些语言包括过多的缩写词或首字母缩写,显示自己才识的语言,有争议性语言,俗语,俚语以及行话。
  Giving Acceptance Cues
  暗示相信被访谈者

  People also send messages by tone of voice, posture, eye contact, facial expressions, and body movements. When used properly, they encourage an interviewee to provide information. E.g. failure to make eye contact in an interview can be interpreted as a lack of interest or concern for the other person. Good eye contact can communicate interest, attention, openness, and a regard for the other person's worth.
  人类会使用说话的语气,眼神接触,面部表情,身体姿势和身体的移动来传达某种信息。
正确使用,会使被访谈者提供更多的信息。例如,在访谈中避免眼睛接触会被理解为缺乏兴趣,或是对其他人更感兴趣。适当的眼神接触会传达出感兴趣,关注,开放的接受并且尊重别人的见解。
  Too much eye contact can be misinterpreted as staring. In our culture eye contact between strangers for more than a brief moment is considered a challenge. In some cultures, eye contact is considered an invasion of privacy.
  太频繁的眼神接触会被误解为盯着对方。在我们的文化中,如果两个陌生人间眼神接触时间过长则意味着挑战。在其他的一些文化中,会被认为是侵犯隐私。
  Nodding the head to indicate understanding is an acceptance cue, as is a posture of attentiveness: sitting straight and leaning slightly forward.
  点头表示理解,暗示接受;类似的,表示关注的姿势:端正坐着略向前倾。
  The following are errors commonly made by inexperienced analysts:
  · Sitting back in a chair with arms folded across the chest. This posture implies a lack of openness to what is being said and may also indicate that the analyst is ill at ease.
  · Looking at objects in the room or staring out the window instead of looking at the interviewee. Because this behavior suggests that the analyst would rather be somewhere else doing other things, the interviewee will often cut the interview short.
  · Taking excessive notes or visually reviewing notes. An analyst who records rather than listening may arouse interviewee concerns over what is being written.
  · Sitting too far away or too close. Sitting too far away often communicates that the interviewee intimidates the analyst, while sitting too close may communicate an inappropriate level of intimacy and make the interviewee uncomfortable.
  缺少经验的需求分析人员通常会犯下面的错误:
    靠在椅子后背上,双手合拢抱在胸前。这种姿势暗示了不太接受正在讲述的内容,也显示出需求分析人员处于不安的状态。
    看着屋内的物品或是直盯着窗户,而不是看着被访谈人。这表明需求分析人员更宁愿在其他的地方做其他事,被放谈者通常会缩短访谈的过程。
    忙于做笔记或是经常翻阅笔记。较之倾听而言,需求分析人员对自己的记录更感兴趣会使被访谈者好奇,到底他记录了什么。
    坐得太远或太近。坐得太远象是暗示被访谈者会威胁到需求分析人员,坐得太近又显得不恰当地亲密,被访谈者会感觉不自在。
  Acceptance cues are used to convey understanding, not agreement.
  相信的暗示表达了理解而不是同意。
  Restating the Interviewee's Responses
  重述被访谈者的回答

  Restatement involves repeating something the interviewee has said in the analyst's own words as an indication that effective communication has occurred and that the analyst understands what the interviewee has said. Restatement is normally used under the following circumstances:
  重述回答是指需求分析人员用自己的语言复述被访谈者的陈述。这显示了两者间进行了有效地沟通,需求分析人员理解了被访谈者的陈述,重述回答一般用在以下场合:
  · When the interviewee is describing a problem. At such times, the analyst's restatement communicates that the interviewee's problem has been heard and understood.
  · 访谈者描述一个问题时。这时,需求分析人员的复述表明听见并理解了访谈者的问题。
  · When the analyst wants to check his or her understanding of what has been said. This technique is often used in response to complex statements or group situations where several persons have commented on the same issue.
  · 当需求分析人员想检查他的理解是否正确时。这个技巧大多是遇到复杂的陈述时,或是多人参与时,每个人对同一问题有各自不同的见解。
  · When the analyst wants to encourage the interviewee. Restatement can prompt the interviewee to expand or elaborate on what has been said.
  · 需求分析人员希望鼓励访谈者时。重述回答会暗示被访谈者扩展或是详细说明他曾说过的内容。
  Restatement can also overcome emotional barriers set up by interviewees who, for some reason, are uncooperative.
  重述回答也能克制住因某种原因,不原配合的人
  The analyst must remain neutral. For example, if the interviewee is critical of management, the analyst should neither agree with the criticism nor attempt to defend management. Instead, the analyst should simply convey that the interviewee's feelings are understood.
  需求分析人员必须保持中立。例如,如果被访谈者批评现有管理模式,需求分析人员不应该赞同他的批评或是为现有管理模式辩护。需求分析人员只需要表达出被访谈者的感觉是可理解的
  Common errors using restatement:
  重述问题常见的错误:
  · Echoing the interviewee, i.e., repeating exactly what the interviewee has said rather than restating in different words. Echoing becomes very obvious after the first few times it occurs and can make the interviewee uncomfortable.
  · 重复被访谈者的话,例如,完全重复被访谈者的话而不是使用其他的表达方式。一段话讲完后被完全重复一遍,会使被访谈者感觉不安
  · Overusing restatement, which can be distracting to the interviewee.
  · 过多重述回答将使被访谈者分心。
  · Altering or distorting the meaning intended by the interviewee. A restatement should be as close to the interviewee's meaning as possible.
  · 改变或是歪曲被访谈者真实的意愿。重述应该尽可能的接近被访谈者的意思
  · Raising the pitch of the voice at the end of a restatement. This habit converts a restatement into a question answerable by yes or no instead of an invitation for the interviewee to expand on his or her comments.
  · 在复述结束时提高声音。这个习惯会使复述变成一个问题,会暗示被访谈者回答是或否,而不是让被访谈者扩展他的解释。
  Here is an example of effective vs. ineffective restatements of an interviewee response:
  Interviewee Response: We continue to sell products to customers who have not paid their bills.
  Ineffective Restatement: Why don't you check the customer's credit status before processing the order? (Distorts interviewee's meaning.)
Effective Restatement: The system processes orders to customers who are bad credit risks. (Encourages interviewee to expand.)
  这儿有个例子显示了有效的及无效的复述;
  被访谈者的回答:顾客没有支付帐单,我们也会继续销售产品给他们。
  无效的复述:在你们处理定单前为什么不检查顾客的信用状态?(扭曲了被访谈者的意思)
  有效的复述:系统也会处理有信用危险的顾客的定单。(鼓励被访谈者扩展发挥)
  Use silence effectively
  有效的使用沉默

  · At the end of a question to allow the interviewee to collect their thoughts
  · 在提问结束时允许被访谈者收集整理他们的想法
  · After an incomplete answer to encourage the interviewee to continue
  · 当被访谈者回答不完整时,鼓励他们继续
  After the interview has been documented, using closed questions can usually do any clarification.
  在会谈已文字记录后,使用封闭性问题可以澄清理解。

  系列文章:
  需求捕获指南(一)—概念和目的
  需求捕获指南(二)—需求捕获的问题及过程
  需求捕获指南(三)—需求捕获的阶段组成(A)
  需求捕获指南(三)—需求捕获的阶段组成(B)
  需求捕获指南(三)—需求捕获的阶段组成(C)
  需求捕获指南(三)—需求捕获的阶段组成(D)
  需求捕获指南(四)—需求捕获技术
  需求捕获指南(五)—需求捕获之用户访谈
  需求捕获指南(六)—需求捕获之调查表


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